Rajnarayan Indu

Reverse Osmosis plants, cottage industry, providing fluoride free water in North Gujrat since 1970s.

The study by Carewater INREM Foundation explores the rise of Reverse Osmosis (RO) plants since 1970s as a cottage industry for providing fluoride free water supply in North Gujarat.

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This multi-location study on inland fisheries in village tanks and ponds attempts to map the changing institutional structure of the aquaculture sector in India

carewaterThis multi-location study by Carewater INREM Foundation on inland fisheries in village tanks and ponds attemp

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Cost of Fluorosis in Gujarat: the economic and social costs
The report by Carewater INREM Foundation on fluorosis in Gujarat attempts to understand the various impacts of fluorosis on the afflicted in terms of costs incurred on treatment, loss of productivity & output and willingness to pay to prevent & cure the disease. The study in addition looks at the awareness on fluorosis and water quality among people. It was conducted in two phases for two time periods 1993 and 2003 -

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The impacts of groundwater contamination with fluoride and arsenic in India

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The field research study conducted by Carewater INREM Foundation attempts to establish the impacts of groundwater contamination with fluoride and arsenic in India. It maps the affliction severity, the medical cost and wage loss through a multi-location study in some villages in the States of Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and West Bengal.

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Rural Gujarat's solution for drinking water: Reverse Osmosis technology

carewaterThe report by Carewater INREM Foundation deals with Reverse Osmosis (RO) technology, which is emerging as an important solution for drinking water treatment in rural Gujarat. RO plants with capacity ranging from 10 litres per hour (lph) to 6000 lph are now supplying drinking water in several hundred villages of the State. Small sized plants with capacity < 20 lph are used by individual families whereas medium to large sized plants (>100 lph) are being used for public consumption.

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Revival of dug wells in the hard rock regions of India: economic and social impact.

carewaterThe discussion paper by Carewater INREM Foundation on possibility of revival of dug wells in hard rock India through recharge is based on a field study across ten districts of the country. The study seeks to understand how localized governance of groundwater in hard rock areas is to be pursued through pricing (water, energy), legal regulation and community institutions. Water supply augmentation and demand management are both to be taken care of, directly through regulation or through indirect instruments such as pricing.

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The objective of the study was to focus on plants supplying good and safe water to consumers under ‘packed drinking water’ category, its clientele and to estimate future of this ‘sunrise’ industry

This study by Carewater focuses on the large number of ‘cottage’ type  Reverse Osmosis (RO) plants that came to be marketed for supplying good and safe water to the consumers under ‘packed drinking water’ category, and a big market for which emerged in North Gujarat. For the purposes of this study, ‘fluoride-free water’ means treated water containing prescribed quantity of fluoride and not completely ‘fluoride-free’.  

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The study aims at understanding the socioeconomic impacts of prevalence of kidney stones in the region and concludes that the problem incurred high social cost and need immediate attention

This study from the coastal villages of Junagadh, Gujarat by Carewater aims at estimating the prevalence of kidney stones in the region and understand its varied socioeconomic impacts in terms of expenses incurred in treatment, procuring good quality water and loss of wages due to inability to work.

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The study found that fluoride and arsenic contamination had high cost on society and concluded that government agencies and individuals need to get more attentive to address the issue

This document on the study conducted by IWMI on the Carewater site aimed at understanding the economic and social burden experienced by people afflicted with contamination of water due to higher percentages of fluoride and arsenic in the water. The objectives of the study were:

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