The most important precondition to make farming profitable for small and marginal tribal farmers residing in undulating terrains
The earliest known civilizations settled around rivers as they provided access to the water needed for cultivating crops. Over time, humans learnt to control the flow of water by the construction of barriers across the direction of the river flow.
The total area under tanks and ponds in India is over 2.9 million hectares (Ministry of Jal Shakti, 2017).
For centuries, communities in undulating, hilly and mountainous regions have been using gravity flow water systems for drinking water and irrigation purposes.