This Civil Engineering Course under the National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning (NPTEL) on the broad subject of Surveying, Mapping, Geographical Information Systems and Global Positioning Systems is being carried out by Indian Institute of Technology’s and the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore as a collaborative project supported by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (Government of India) to enhance the quality of engineering education in the country, by developing curriculum based video and web courses. In these web based lectures, the authors have developed the subject in detail and in stages in a student-friendly manner. The broad group of Surveying, Mapping, Geographical Information Systems and Global Positioning Systems is structured into modules on the following topics:
Surveying: The course developed by IIT, Roorkee deals with measuring, recording and drawing to scale the physical features on the surface of the earth using different tools and survey equipment for different survey sites. The course is structured into the following modules –
- Module 1: Introduction to Surveying - This module aims to provide the background and fundamental information required to delve into the subject. It deals with the introduction and basics of surveying (importance, objectives, divisions, classifications and principles). View the module here
- Module 2: Measurements and Errors – This module discusses the fundamentals behind any measurement and its manipulation for further calculation. The module deals with the method by which the worthiness of the observed or computed value of measurement can be tested by using standard deviation, an indicator for measurement of reliability. View the module here
- Module 3: Measurement of Horizontal Distance – This module explains methods for measurement of distance, associated problems and errors. In plane surveying, the degree of accuracy of measurement depends on the type of instruments and the methods adopted. Systematic errors associated with measurements are corrected using appropriate physical model and random errors computed using the theory of errors. View the module here
- Module 4: Measurement of Vertical Distance - Elevation of objects/points (on the surface of the earth) is an important parameter measured during surveying. The measurement consists of determination of the vertical height of the object/point above a reference surface. During surveying this is usually carried out by an operation termed as leveling. This module discusses instruments, their operation, different methods, measurements and calculations involved in leveling. View the module here
- Module 5: Representation of Vertical Distance - The utility of a plan or map increases highly if it also depicts the relative vertical position of the points, natural and/or man made objects and/or features. The objective of this module is to explain the fundamentals of contours and their engineering applications. View the module here
- Module 6: Measurement of Relative Direction of Line - One of the primary objective of surveying is to find out the relative direction of line. This is required to designate the spatial location of points on or near the surface of the earth. This module discusses the fundamentals and the instruments involved in finding out the relative direction. View the module here
- Module 7: Measurement of Horizontal and Vertical Distance Simultaneously - This module is structured into the following two lessons (a) Lesson 23 introduces tacheometry and discusses about the stadia method of tacheometric surveying and (b) Lesson 24 explains non-stadia systems of tacheometric surveying.
- Module 8: Measurement of Absolute Direction - This module is structured into the following lessons – (a) Lesson 25 - Introduction to Astronomy - It explains the non-stadia systems of tacheometric surveying (b) Lesson 26 - Azimuth - It provides the definition of azimuth and explains hour angle method for its determination and (c) Lesson 27 - Field Method of Hour Angle. It explains the field method for sun observation and subsequent computation of azimuth.
- Module 9: Control Survey - Control surveys are conducted to establish a system of horizontal and vertical control points over the area to be mapped. These are connected with high precision stations through control surveying. The horizontal control points can be established by different field methods such as triangulation, trilateration, traversing or by using GNSS receiver. The vertical control is usually accomplished by leveling. These positions are required for further detailed surveys. The module explains in detail the establishment of horizontal control point by traversing. View the module here
- Module 10: Location of Details - Within the frame of control points, it is required to plot in detail the objects and features present on the surface of the earth. The usefulness of the final topographic map fulfilling the purpose of survey depends largely on the location of the details. Usually, topographic details are located by the same method as adopted for plotting of contours. This module explains the plane table method of surveying for location of details. View the module here
- Module 11: Route Survey - Route surveying is required to establish alignment for transportation facilities. Surveys of some type are required for practically all phases of route alignment planning, design and construction works. This module discusses in detail the geometry and methods for setting out of curves used in route alignment. View the module here
Modern Surveying Techniques: This course by IIT Kanpur deals with modern surveying equipments electronic distance measuring instruments (electronic theodolite), global positioning system, photogrammetry, remote sensing and geographical information systems. Revolutionary changes have taken place in last few years in surveying instruments that are used for measuring level differences, distances and angles. This has become possible because of introduction of electronics in these measurements. To view the same course by IIT Roorkee please click here
Remote Sensing: This introductory course on the topic of remote sensing by IIT Kanpur begins with the basic physics of remote sensing describing the remote sensing system, its component and role. Further, the electromagnetic radiation interaction with matter and atmosphere are addressed. Effect of geometric/radiometric errors on data & their minimization and different types of satellite orbits & their designing are discussed. A course on similar lines is offered by IIT Roorkee to introduce the fundamental concepts, advanced principles and application of remote sensing. Please view details here. The course as offered by IISc Bangalore can be viewed here.
Digital Image Processing and Pattern Recognition for Remotely Sensed Images: The course as offered by IIT Kanpur deals with the availability of variety of remote sensing data products with different spectral, spatial and temporal resolutions. The aim of the course is to introduce various techniques of processing and information extraction from remotely sensed images. View details here.
Elements of Photogrammetry: This course by IIT Roorkee introduces the fundamental concepts and principles of photogrammetry for mapping work to the undergraduate students of civil engineering. View details here.
Geographic Information Systems in Civil Engineering: This web based course by IIT Delhi imparts the core principles and basic techniques of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and enables the learner use the tool very effectively. The topics covered include preparation and management of geographic data, spatial data structures, projections and coordinate systems, georeferencing, global positioning systems, etc. View details here.
Global Positioning System: This course by IIT Roorkee introduces the fundamental and advanced concepts, and applications of Global Positioning System (GPS) and covers the topics - GPS Orbits, GPS errors and accuracy, GPS Observables, GPS Survey Methods (static vs. kinematic), single point vs. relative positioning, GPS Modernization plans, GPS Applications etc. View details here.