Bihar needs to build 6,900 toilets a day to keep promise of total sanitation - A survey report by WaterAid (2009)

This brief report highlights the findings of an evaluation study conducted by WaterAid, India of the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC), a national programme in India that ensures sanitation facilities in rural areas to eradicate open defecation. The study was conducted in the five states of Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Tripura, Karnataka and Haryana. This document highlights the findings of the evaluation study in the state of Bihar.

The evaluation found that Bihar fared very poorly in terms of coverage of toilets in rural areas.  In addition to this, many of the toilets already built continued to be unused and ill maintained.

The study identifies an urgent need to revisit the current programme implementation strategy and focus more on user perspectives and behavioural change interventions, besides capacity building and improvements in programme management.

A complete copy of the report can be obtained by contacting Binu Nair on email at

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