Forests are being destroyed at an alarming rate world over with tropical forests - hot spots of biodiversity experiencing the largest declines.
Inland aquatic fisheries form an important source of livelihood for a significant proportion of population in India. Climate change is projected to have a huge impact on inland aquatic ecosystems and the fisheries sector in India. While there are a number of studies on the impacts of climate change on freshwater ecosystems and fish, most of these are from the temperate countries.
Microplastic pollution is a growing environmental concern. Microplastics are plastic particles with sizes ranging from 1 μm to 5 mm. However, a clear consensus on the definition of microplastics is lacking and even the lower size limit varies among different studies.
In recent years, the impact of the wastes discharged in the Bay of Bengal has been significant due to high effluent inflow from secured sources. It was observed that the heavy metal concentrations in the Bay coast sediments were considerately high and varied among sampling points.
Floods are often perceived as a destructive force in Assam and other parts of India.
Cholera outbreaks are frequent and steadily increasing in India, shows recent surveillance data.
The river Brahmaputra carries around 73 million tons of dissolved material annually, which accounts for approximately 4% of the total dissolved flux into the oceans (Singh et al., 2005). The dissolved chemical load and sediment flux of the Brahmaputra River has significantly higher rates of physical and chemical weathering than other large Himalayan catchments.
Sundarbans delta is the largest mangrove forest reserve in the world with distinct species of wild flora and fauna. It is a source of livelihood for several communities residing in the vicinity. The indigenous plants, extraction of honey and catching fish from rivers, lakes and rivulets have good economic value in surroundings markets.
The loss of connectivity is a ubiquitous threat facing rivers worldwide considering the numerous river infrastructure projects that exist worldwide and continue to be commissioned to meet humanity’s growing demands for hydropower, flood control, and water supply. Not surprisingly, freshwater ecosystems are among the most altered and threatened globally.
Agricultural intensification in India has increased nitrogen pollution, leading to water quality impairments. The fate of reactive nitrogen applied to the land is largely unknown, however. Long-term records of riverine nitrogen fluxes are nonexistent and drivers of variability remain unexamined, limiting the development of nitrogen management strategies.