Unprecedented expansion and anthropic activities amongst other reasons lead to choking of urban rivers with municipal and industrial sewage. Around 63% of the total 62 million litres/ day generated sewage is dumped in Indian urban rivers without treatment, as per a Central Pollution Control Board report submitted to National Green Tribunal, India.
Ponds are increasingly getting polluted mainly due to the discharge of wastewater from residential areas, sewage outlets, solid waste dump sites, livestock rearing sites (e.g., dairy, poultry), and fertilizers and pesticides from farmers’ fields.
Excessive dependence and unregulated use of groundwater is draining India dry with 84 percent of groundwater being used for irrigation and 90 percent for drinking in rural areas.
The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act is one of the largest social protection programmes in the world, providing guarantee of income to some 55 million people every year.
Managing menstruation, with dignity
More than 300 million girls and women between the ages of 15 and 49 are menstruating everyday. Managing menstruation hygienically and with dignity is crucial for health and well being of women.
The urban population in India was estimated to be 34.5% in 2019, as per the World Bank. There has been an increase in urbanization by almost 4% in the last decade due to a greater number of people migrating from rural areas to cities in search of better job opportunities.
Participatory flood risk mapping is a well-recognized and widely implemented tool for meaningful community involvement in disaster risk reduction.
The shift to renewable energy sources is inevitable and of the various energy sources solar energy has a huge potential. The production of electricity with the usage of solar photovoltaic technology is the most promising after wind and hydro technology.
While food systems globally are struggling to meet the nutritional needs of the growing populations, these have put a strain on land, water, soil, resources leading to a renewed interest in sustainable food systems. These, derived from sustainable cultures and ecosystems are often known to be accessible, affordable, safe, healthy and promote environmental stability.