Research Papers

  • Climate change could have a strong impact on fisheries with far-reaching consequences on food and livelihoods of populations. It is likely to have a major impact on future marine fisheries production in India. However, very little understanding exists on the how fishing communities, the actual stake...
    aarti kelkar kh...posted 4 years 9 months agoread more
  • India is highly dependant on groundwater. As high as 85 percent of rural drinking water is derived from wells with 88 percent of it used for irrigation, and 48 percent of the urban also uses groundwater. The paper titled 'Shaping the contours of groundwater governance in India' published in the...
    aarti kelkar kh...posted 4 years 10 months agoread more
  • Water tankers are a common sight in most Indian cities and so are tanker businesses that extract and deliver groundwater via trucks or tractors to hundreds of residential neighbourhoods at a negotiated price. Most of these are informal or unauthorised. Who are the water mafia and how do they operat...
    aarti kelkar kh...posted 4 years 10 months agoread more
  • Urban water supply can be classified into two categories -- formal and informal.  A formal system usually means piped delivery, at least partly treated, and regulated by a utility. An informal system usually includes a set of alternative water delivery mechanisms and practices which are largely...
    aarti kelkar kh...posted 4 years 10 months agoread more
  • The National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP) and the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) SBM (G) are the two flagship programmes of the government implemented by the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, a nodal Ministry responsible for the overall policy, planning, funding and coordinat...
    aarti kelkar kh...posted 4 years 10 months agoread more
  • India's water availability in the future is predicted to be bleak if proper steps are not undertaken to deal with the management of the available water resources in the country. The report titled 'Watershed development in India - An approach evolving through experience' by the World Bank, argue...
    aarti kelkar kh...posted 4 years 11 months agoread more
  • Vidarbha region in Maharashtra has continued to be in the news over the years because of its severe agrarian crisis with reports of severe droughts, loss of crops and increasing farmer suicides. Relief packages have done very little to solve these problems. The paper titled 'Generating agrarian dyn...
    aarti kelkar kh...posted 4 years 11 months agoread more
  • A wetland is defined as land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, and maintains an ecosystem of its own.The factor that distinguishes wetlands from other land forms or water bodies is the vegetation of aquatic plants which grow in its highly water saturated soil [1]. ...
    aarti kelkar kh...posted 4 years 11 months agoread more
  • River basins in India have been found to be highly vulnerable to contamination. Recent evidence shows that a large number of water sources including rivers, lakes and surface water in India are polluted due to untreated sewage, agricultural runoff and most importantly, due to unregulated industries....
    aarti kelkar kh...posted 4 years 11 months agoread more
  • Climate change has been predicted to create increasing risks for the agricultural sector thus inversely affecting agricultural production and farm incomes in India. These risks have already manifested in the form of increasing intensity and extent of droughts, floods, temperature rise and fall, and ...
    aarti kelkar kh...posted 4 years 11 months agoread more
  • Hyderabad, which is India's fourth largest city, has a population of almost 7 million. The Musi river, originating from the Anantagiri hills, divides the city into north and south. The River flows through the city and joins the Krishna in Nalgonda. The paper titled "Stakeholder views, financin...
    aarti kelkar kh...posted 5 years 1 week agoread more
  • Punjab has made great progress in grain production following the technological revolution in agriculture in the 1960s. The state achieved this through subsidised use of high yielding variety seeds, fertilisers and irrigation. The paper titled 'Groundwater Irrigation-Electricity-Crop diversification...
    aarti kelkar kh...posted 5 years 1 week agoread more
  • Madurai, Tamil Nadu's second largest city, is now filled with buildings and roads which are eating into its age old network of tanks and canals. This change did not happen overnight. It began in the late 19th century by the British when they merged several hamlets to establish their headquarter...
    seetha@indiawat...posted 5 years 2 weeks agoread more
  • Known as "Hari-ke-Pattan", this wetland is the largest in the Tarn Taran Sahib district of the Punjab in northern India and has the Harike Lake in its deeper part [1]. Its rich biodiversity plays an important role in maintaining the hydrological balance in the catchment area. It also supports a...
    aarti kelkar kh...posted 5 years 3 weeks agoread more
  • The Loktak lake in Manipur is the largest freshwater lake in Northeast India. It is famous for the phumdis, which are isolated collections of heterogenous masses of vegetation, soil, and organic matter at various stages of decomposition, floating over it [1]. It is referred to as the only floating l...
    aarti kelkar kh...posted 5 years 4 weeks agoread more
  • Fisheries form an important component of the economy of Jammu and Kashmir, which along with agriculture, contributes a significant 23% to its Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP). Besides being an important allied activity to agriculture, it contributes significantly to the agricultural economy and a...
    aarti kelkar kh...posted 5 years 4 weeks agoread more
  • Vibrio cholerae is responsible for 100,000 -120,000 deaths annually, worldwide. [1] Commonly found in ponds, rivers and brackish areas, the bacterium finds its way into humans through contaminated food and water. And the result? Cholera. Characterized by severe diarrhea, vomiting and dehydratio...
    seetha@indiawat...posted 5 years 1 month agoread more
  • Rapid urbanisation in various forms is set to transform the coastline of Tamil Nadu as real estate, infrastructure, tourism, and urban beautification plans are in full swing. Fisherfolk, whose everyday life and survival is rooted in the commons, are at the centre of these processes of coastal urbani...
    aarti kelkar kh...posted 5 years 1 month agoread more
  • By declaring 2014 as the International Year of Family Farming, a lot of attention was focussed on the contribution of small farms, and the role of the families involved in it in eradicating hunger and poverty. Small farms play a crucial role in ensuring food security, nutrition, improving livelihood...
    aarti kelkar kh...posted 5 years 1 month agoread more
  • India’s 7500 km coastal line supports nearly 4, 87,100 hectares of mangroves. These unique ecosystems harbour nearly 3985 species of flora and fauna. Due to the increasing effects of climate change, mangrove forests in the country are under serious threat. What are mangroves? Mangroves are large...
    aarti kelkar kh...posted 5 years 1 month agoread more

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A study from remote villages in rural Uttarakhand finds that toilet use is influenced by geography, accessibility, availability of infrastructure and occupation of villagers.

“Sometimes I go for open defecation, sometimes I use the toilet. It’s not like I always have to use the toilet. When I go for work here and there, I defecate in the jungle,” says Renu from one of the remote villages in Tehri Garwal district of Uttarakhand when asked why she does not use latrines every day.

Although there is a government-constructed latrine with a water tap that she and her family use when they are at home, she sees no point in coming back home to use the toilet when she goes out to graze animals or to collect firewood a long way into the jungle.

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A study from rural Maharashtra finds piped water supply does not guarantee safe drinking water. Water treatment, storage and WASH practices influence water quality.

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It is not just mindless urbanisation but flawed restoration efforts by authorities, too are responsible for the gradual deterioration of Pashan lake in Pune.

Pashan lake, the pride of Pune, is dying! Water hyacinth continues to invade the lake and pollution levels in the lake are high, threatening its once rich biodiversity. How did this happen?

The lake was once birders’ paradise

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Aspects of the census data to consider when using it as a data source for rural water supply.

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Women, who need safe sanitation the most, are often left out of crucial sanitation-related decisions at households, a study says.

Does gender matter when it comes to sanitation? Apparently, it does. Women suffer more than men in case of poor access to sanitation that compromises their health, mobility and freedom. Since there is a possibility of being sexually assaulted or harassed while answering nature’s call in the open, they hesitate to drink enough water to avoid urinating leading to various diseases like urinary tract infections, heat stroke, kidney infections, etc. Women often hold the urge to defecate due to the lack of access to sanitation leading to chronic constipation and intestinal damage.

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A study finds faulty agricultural policies and practices and not just indebtedness to blame for rising suicides among farmers.

Over the last few months, we saw protests by distressed farmers of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and other states over farming crisis and farmer suicides. In what seemed like a knee-jerk reaction, many state governments announced farm loan waivers without thinking if it would actually help the farmers. 

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Mihir Shah Committee report suggests restructuring CWC and CGWB and setting up an apex body for water management. Experts, while welcoming the idea, raise some concerns.

The landmark report titled A 21st century institutional architecture for India's water reforms submitted by the expert committee chaired by Dr Mihir Shah on restructuring the Central Water Comission (CWC) and the Central Ground Water Board (CGWB)

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Wastewater from tannery industries that reach agricultural lands ruin soil health and pollute groundwater, a study finds out.

The use of wastewater for irrigation in agricultural lands is a common practice across the globe. But a study by Indian researchers has found that it can also affect the quality of soil and groundwater, and consequently, human health. 

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From increasing health issues among residents to declining forest produce, coal mining in Chhattisgarh has devastating outcomes.

It was in the late 90s that Raigarh emerged as the hub for power, coal mining and sponge iron in Chhattisgarh. The coalfield in Mand Raigarh is spread over an area of more than 1,12,000 hectares with an estimated 21,117 metric tonnes of coal. 

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A study from the Sundarbans shows that conserving biodiversity by excluding indigenous populations has threatened not only the survival of the forest but also the sustainability of the region.

Can forest conservation policies that ignore the livelihood needs of local, indigenous populations succeed in protecting biodiversity and wildlife?

Experiences from the Sundarbans show that such policies not only result in the suffering of the local population, it also leads to the exploitation of natural resources and biodiversity in the region.

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