As part of the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC), the Ministry of Rural Development under the Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission and UNICEF have brought out a compedium that details the various sanitation technologies available to above and below poverty line households .
The authors have divided the report into three subjects - the first being the need for household sanitation and the extent of the problem in rural India. The second section looks at sanitation technology in general with a focus on rural areas and technologies for different conditions. The third part deals with operation and maintenance of such technologies and includes a chapter on components of a toilet.
The authors explain the chain of transmission of diseases from faeces to humans. They explain that using a sanitation barrier or sanitary latrine, the faeco-oral disease cycle can be broken. Pointing out to the lack of proper sanitation in rural India, the report states that nearly 80% of the total diseases occur due to lack of proper water and sanitation. The high incidence of faecal borne diseases is aggravated because of poor living conditions. Thus the need for suitable low cost sanitary technology that meets the prevailing conditions.
The compendium lists out a range of technologies that include conventional ones like pit latrine to more advanced systems like Ecosan toilets. It also provides diagrams to explain the construction technology involved, the costs for construction of each type of toilet and the pros and cons of each type of toilet.
Download the compendium: