Surface water quality assessment of river Kali with special emphasis on non point source of pollution – A research report by the National Institute of Hydrology

The study conducts an extensive water quality survey in sixteen reaches of Kali river in western Uttar Pradesh to estimate the inflow of two major nutrients (nitrate and phosphate) from point and non-point sources. The study intends to validate the present model based on the principle of conservation of mass and reaction kinetics phenomenon.

Data was taken for one annual cycle on a monthly basis and criteria developed to compute the non point source load from nine sub-basins in various stretches of the river. The computed loads at each section obtained from the predictive equation have been compared with the values observed in the field. The performance of the developed equation has been evaluated using percentage error estimation and correlation statistics. Remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS) have been used to develop correlation between basin characteristics and non-point source loads.

The monitoring and analysis of water quality data and hydraulic parameters was carried out. Inconsistencies in mass balance equation related to estimation of non-point load were identified from literature review. A modified mass balance equation has been used to interpolate the concentration of certain non-point indicators within a stream reach. Non-point loads have been related to basin characteristics, incident rainfall, applied fertilizer doses and cropping pattern. With the help of remote sensing and GIS, several basin characteristics like land use, land cover, area under different crops, digital elevation model, slope and aspect map showing flow direction have been assessed. The correlation of non-point load with reach length was investigated to ascertain the importance of various parameters. A good correlation is found between non-point source nutrient load and reach length.

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Post By: rajshekar