Status of groundwater quality in India - Report of the survey conducted in metropolitan areas by the CPCB

The report presents the results of a detailed survey of groundwater quality in metropolitan areas (population >100,000) in India.

The report recognises that most groundwater quality problems are anthropogenic in origin, caused by a combination of over-exploitation and infiltration of wastes. Inadequate infrastructure and resources mean that waste generated by cities and industrial areas is not properly collected, treated and disposed, thus leading to grondwater contamination.

During the survey, groundwater samples from cities in twelve states were collected during the pre- and post- monsoon seasons during 2004-05 and 2006-07. These were then analysed for various water quality parameters. The data obtained was evaluated against BIS water quality (BIS 10500 (1991)) and WHO (1996) standards for drinking water and irrigation water quality requirements.

Part I of the report was published in February 2007. It includes the survey results from eight major metropolitan cities.Part II presents the results of the survey for all 27 cities where testing was carried out.

According to the reports, salinity, nitrate, coliform and fluoride are the major water quality issues in urban areas in the country. The report also lists remedial measures, and the need for ground water conservation.

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