This document by the Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation deals with the guidelines of the Central Rural Sanitation Programme (CRSP) and Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC). India’s first nationwide programme of rural sanitation, the CRSP was launched in 1986, while TSC was launched in 1999 with the aim of ending open defecation.
The concept of sanitation was earlier limited to disposal of human excreta by cesspools, open ditches, pit latrines, bucket system etc. Today it connotes a comprehensive concept, which includes liquid and solid waste disposal, food hygiene, and personal, domestic as well as environmental hygiene. Keeping in view the above facts, the CRSP was improved.
In the new format, CRSP moves towards a “demand driven” approach. The revised approach in TSC emphasizes more on Information, Education and Communication (IEC), Human Resource Development, Capacity Development activities to increase awareness among the rural people and for generation of demand for sanitary facilities. This will also enhance people’s capacity to choose appropriate options through alternate delivery mechanisms as per their economic condition.
The programme is being implemented with focus on community-led and people centered initiatives. Children play an effective role in absorbing and popularizing new ideas and concepts. This programme, therefore, intends to tap their potential as the most persuasive advocates of good sanitation practices in their own households and in schools. The aim is also to provide separate urinals/toilets for boys and girls in all the schools/anganwadis in rural areas in the country.
Alternate delivery mechanisms would be adopted to meet the community needs. Subsidy for individual household latrine units has been replaced by incentive to the poorest of the poor households. Rural School Sanitation is a major component and an entry point for wider acceptance of sanitation by the rural people.
Technology improvisations to meet the customer preferences and location specific intensive IEC Campaign involving Panchayati Raj Institutions, Co-operatives, Women Groups, Self Help Groups, NGOs etc., are also important components of the strategy.
The strategy addresses all sections of rural population to bring about the relevant behavioural changes for improved sanitation and hygiene practices and meet their sanitary hardware requirements in an affordable and accessible manner by offering a wide range of technological choices.
The guidelines also state that a National Scheme Sanctioning Committee (NSSC) will be constituted under TSC for identified period to approve the project proposals for the select districts, as received from the State/UT Governments duly approved by the State Scheme Sanctioning Committee (SSCC). There will be seven members in the NSSC.
As regards implementation agencies, the guidelines state that –
- Implementation of the Total Sanitation Campaign requires large scale social mobilization, so its implementation at the District level should be done by the Zilla Panchayat/District Water and Sanitation Mission (DWSM) chaired by Zilla Panchayat President/District Collectors. The line departments will play the catalytic role in implementation.
- At the state level, State Government should constitute a State Water and Sanitation Mission (SWSM) to help in supervision of implementation of TSC in the project districts, prepare the Annual Implementation Plan for each district as per the progress made by districts, receive grant-in-aid from Centre earmarked for specific project districts and disburse the same.
- The State Government should also set up a Water and Sanitation Support Organisation (WSSO) under State Water and Sanitation Mission (SWSM) to primarily deal with IEC, HRD and Monitoring and Evaluation issues at the State level.
- Specific Communication & Capacity Development Units (CCDUs) shall be set up and work for taking up state level HRD & IEC activities as well as monitoring of TSC projects. In states where water supply & sanitation are handled by two different departments, a separate CCDU (Sanitation) may be set up, subject to the condition that officials handling water supply should also be actively associated with this CCDU.
Download the guidelines here -