Guest post by : Er. Radhey Shyam Goel
India accounts for 2.4% of the world’s surface area but supports 16.7% of the world’s population. Further, our country possesses meager 4% of world’s water resources, that too highly uncertain in time and space due to its monsoonic climate. Still, India possesses highly dismal per capita storage capacity compared to even those countries; where rainfall is more or less evenly distributed in time and space. While per capita storage capacity in North America, Russia, Australia, China are respectively 6150, 6013,4729 and 2486 cubic meters, the same in India is only 262 cubic meters.
Supreme Court in their judgment in PIL filed by NBA expressed its deep concern that against the utilizable storage 690 cu. km. of surface water resources out of 1869 cu. km.; so far storage capacity of all dams in India is only 174 cu. km., which is incidentally less than the capacity of Kariba dam in Zambia/Zimbabwe with capacity of 180.6 cu. km. and only 12 cu. km. more than the Aswan High dam of Egypt. Hence to build robustness to climate variability and to overcome water scarcity in India, India must very fast harness accelerated water storage capacity at all feasible sites and ILR is to be undertaken in time bound manner not only to moderate recurring floods & droughts but also for food & power security, employment generation and environmental sustainability of urban infrastructure.
2. Supreme Court’s judgment 2012
Hon’ble Supreme Court’s 3 Judge Bench, headed by Hon’ble Chief Justice of India, in its significant Judgment dated 27th February, 2012 (Writ petition No. 512 of 2002) has directed -
“It is clear that primarily there is unanimity between all concerned authorities - including the Centre and a majority of the State Governments, with the exception of one or two, that implementation of river linking will be very beneficial. In fact, the expert opinions convincingly dispel all other impressions. There shall be greater growth in agricultural and allied sectors, prosperity and stimulus to the economy potentially causing increase in per capita income, in addition to the short and long term benefits likely to accrue by such implementation. These would accrue if the expert recommendations are implemented properly and within a timeframe. Then there shall be hardly any financial strain on the economy. On the contrary, such implementation would help advancement of India’s GDP and bring greater wealth and prosperity to the nation as a whole. Besides actual benefits accruing to the common man, the Governments will also benefit from the definite possibility of saving the States from drought on the one hand and floods on the other. This project, when it becomes a reality, will provide immeasurable benefits. We see no reason as to why the Governments should not take appropriate and timely - interest in the execution of this project, particularly when, in the various affidavits filed by the Central and the State Governments, it has been affirmed that the governments are very keen to implement this project with great sincerity and effectiveness.
We would recommend, with all judicial authority at our command, that these projects are in the national interest, as is the unanimous view of all experts, most State Governments and particularly, the Central Government. It will not only be desirable, but also inevitable that an appropriate body should be created to plan, construct and implement inter- linking of rivers program for the benefit of the nation as a whole.”
3. Socio-economic & environmental impacts of floods
Over 40 million hectares of the area of the country experiences periodic floods. The average area affected by floods annually in India is about 7.5 m. ha of which crop area affected is about 3.5 m. ha. Floods have claimed on an average 1,529 human lives and 94000 cattle ever year. Apart from loss of life and domestic property, the devastating effects of floods, sense of insecurity and fear in the minds of people living in the flood plains is enormous. Crops grown in the flood plains suffer from congestion of water on the farmlands. Management of the surface water becomes a very tricky operation in the flood prone areas during periods of heavy rainfall.
Floods also affect the vulnerable aquatic and wild life, forests, mangroves and precious bio-diversity in the flood plains. Large-scale damages to forests, crops & precious plants and deaths of aquatic and wildlife, migratory and native birds in various National Parks, delta region, low altitude hilly areas and alluvial flood plains of Assam, Arunachal, Uttrakhand, U.P., Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal, have always been the matter of serious concern. Almost all river valley projects (RVPs) moderate the magnitudes as well as frequencies of floods. While some projects are specially designed to provide flood cushion in the reservoirs, others also help in reducing the magnitude of floods with proper operation and control of gates.
4. Socio-economic & environmental impacts of droughts
It is estimated that around 263 million people live in drought prone area of about 108 m. ha. which works out to 1/3rd of the total Indian geographical area. Thus, more than 26% of total population of India face grave consequences of recurring droughts, on a wide spectrum of social concerns. RVPs are designed to provide ‘carry-over’ storage in the reservoirs to help in mitigating the droughts. Grave adverse impacts are borne by flora, fauna and domestic cattle and the very life itself fights against nature for its survival. Droughts affect rural life in several ways. This accentuates problems in cities in the form of mushrooming of slums and pressure on the existing civil amenities thereby adversely affecting urban life.
5. Rehabilitation of displaced families
The controversies concerning the rehabilitation of persons displaced by dams have muddied the entire debate on the utility of water resources projects and caused much harm to the national economy and well being of the population at large. As per the broad assessment made by Central Water Commission through the review of data of 2,784 dams spread in 14 States, the total affected persons may range between 6-7 Million. The exaggerated claims by the opponents of large dams blow up this figure up to 70 million by taking the average of the recent few mega dams and multiplying the same by 4,291.
It has to be borne in mind that most of the high dams (by definition every dam having height of more than 15m is classified as high dam mainly for safety concerns) did not displace persons, firstly due to very thin population in the submergence in earlier dams during construction, secondly very few dams having the height greater than 50m would have the submergence impacts on the upstream habitation. There are now-a-days efforts for provisions for more liberal compensation, amenities, land and employment for the displaced population, while constructing river valley projects. Some projects have been shelved on this account alone. There is a strong need to formulate a strong monitoring group for dealing with rehabilitation of project affected families (PAFs). Awareness and persuasive approach are needed to tackle this problem. At the same time, the rehabilitation packages with scope for more than one option should be made more attractive so that project affected people are induced to accept them. The construction of multi-purpose projects like Sardar-Sarovar and Tehri Dam attracted attention of a large number of NGOs–perhaps many of them funded by developed countries, either on the issue of R&R or many shifting unjustified issues.
Many positive aspects noticed in the resettlement & rehabilitation of PAPs in Tehri, Sardar- Sarovar, Upper Krishna Dam projects have been overlooked by environmental activists. self-acclaimed environmental experts, having neither professional background nor acumen in highly complicated dose response functions of complex environmental issues. In the Upper Krishna Project (Karnataka), a reputed NGO, Maryada, was associated in preparing the Action Plan for the rehabilitation of PAFs. Similarly, in the Upper Indravati Project (Orissa), a voluntary agency viz. M/s Agragamy was entrusted with the work of preparation of rehabilitation master plan for the PAPs.
NGOs by adopting a constructive approach can play an important role in proper rehabilitation & resettlement of PAFs.
National Policy on Resettlement and Rehabilitation for Project Affected Families was notified on 17th Feb, 2004. Comprehensive National Land Acquisition and Rehabilitation Policy is presently under active consideration of Parliament.
In recent RVPs, very liberal provisions and comprehensive plans for implementation are being kept, so as to ensure that the PAFs are rehabilitated properly with adequate civic amenities so that their economic conditions are improved after rehabilitation. Most of such PAFs originally reside in areas of extreme environmental fragility and largely deprived of nutritional food, potable water and productive employment. The Author very strongly feels that those NGOs and activists, who oppose almost each river valley project, must also fight to ensure minimum reasonable living standards to those vulnerable people living on areas of environmental fragility, even the absence of such RVPs.
6. Objectives of inter-basin transfers (ILR)
Broad objectives for ILR/ IBTW projects are envisaged as: equitable distribution of the available water resources within a nation or a region; increased economic efficiency; self- sufficiency in water related outputs such as food, hydro-energy and industrial production, providing large scale livelihood and employment opportunities in situ to minimize migration of rural population to urbanized areas. Seasonal or permanent, short distance or long distance, are very common, which can be avoided through balanced regional economic development by ILR projects.
National Commission for Integrated Water Resources Development 1999 reported that per capita availability of waters varies widely from around 300 m.cu per person per year in basins like Sabarmati to very large quantities in the Brahmaputra, with a National average of about 2,000 m.cu per person per year. Precipitation is the main source of water availability in India, which has a very highly uneven distribution, with an annual rain fall of more than 10m in parts of Meghalaya to less than half a meter in semi-arid parts of Rajasthan and Gujarat. In arid regions, it could be less than 10 cm. Much of the water is received in a few months of the monsoon, and that to within around 100 hours of the rainy days. As per International standard the limit of 1,700 KL of water per person per year is considered satisfactory; if it falls below 1,000 KL, it creates conditions of stress. Indian requirement of agriculture for producing food alone is 700 KL. Other requirements like that of domestic use, industries, ecological requirement, hydro power etc. requires further above 1,000 KL. Most of the basins in India have availability below 1000 KL. Per capita water availability in Brahmaputra basin is around 10,000 KL and in Narmada, & Mahanadi above 2, 000 KL.
Union Ministry of Water Resources (MoWR), had recognized need of interlinking of rivers (ILR) and prepared a National Perspective Plan (NPP) in 1980 after studying all major basins of the country. National Water Development (NWDA) Agency was set up in 1982, to work on preparation of feasibility reports. Thus, about 30 years have passed, since need for Inter-basin transfer of water was recognized. Food requirement by 2050 is estimated as 450 Million tons. If prompt actions are not taken, the country may have to face serious food-crisis and may have to start importing food-grains. Similarly if hydro power is not developed very fast, it would result not only in acute shortage of power particularly in peak hours and the country will have to go for more expensive and with ecologically more adverse impacts of thermal & nuclear projects, which will make Indian products highly less competitive in international market.
In order to be self- sufficient in food, increased irrigation through long distance water transfers may be required. Countries like Japan, England, Saudi Arabia etc. depend on imports to meet a large part of their food requirements. A nation of the size of India cannot afford to be not self-sufficient in food requirements. World trade in food-grains is not large enough to meet the needs of a large country like India. Infrastructural bottlenecks like port facility, shipping, roads, railways etc. are other constraints on increasing trade in food grains. Thus food self-sufficiency is an explicit objective of ILR.
7. Inter-Basin & Intra-basin Water Transfers Projects (ILR)
When there are no serious inter-state problems involved and where the water divides between basins do not constitute insurmountable ridges, inter-basin transfers are planned and executed in a routine manner. To give a few examples, both the Krishna and Godavari delta irrigation systems cover and irrigate the small basins in between, the Nagarjunasagar Right Bank Canal irrigates areas beyond the Krishna basin. The Krishna Cuddapah canal in Andhra Pradesh transfers the waters of Krishna to the Penna basin, the Mahi Right Bank Canal irrigates large areas in the Sabarmati basin.
Rajasthan Canal Project diverted waters from the Himalayas to the deserts of Rajasthan. Project comprises of a huge multi purpose project constructed across the Beas river at Pong, a barrage at Harike and a grand canal system. Other important IBTW schemes in the country are the Parambikulam- Aliyar Project, Telugu Ganga, Sardar Sarovar etc. Sardar Sarovar canal transfer the Narmada water to various basins of Gujarat and also into Rajasthan, which is a non-co-basin state. Waters of the Indus basin (Bhakra) are transferred to the Yamuna basin and in particular to the Delhi urban area through the inter-connected canals of Bhakra and Yamuna. Significant part of NCR municipal water requirement is met from Ramganga project, on a tributary of Ganges river.
In United States, California's State Water Project, first phase completed in 1973, provides for the diversion of 4 cubic km of flow from better watered northern California to drier central and southern parts of the state. Conveyance system comprised of 715 Km California Aqueduct, a complex system of lined and unlined canals, pumping stations, siphon-s and tunnels. The lift involved is nearly 1,000 m. Texas Water Plan envisages redistribution of water in Texas and New Mexico to meet the needs of the year 2020. Similarly waters of the Colarado river (an international river between USA and Mexico) are being supplied outside basin to the Imperial valley in the California. Major existing and under construction inter-basin transfers in Canada include Kemano, Churchill Diversion, Weiland canal, James Bay, Churchill Falls, Bay d'Espoir etc. Proposed inter basin transfers in Canada include Ogoki, Long Lake (for transfer within Canada) and North American Water and Power Alliance (NAWAPA), Grand Canal Concept, Canadian I Water, Magnum plan, Central North American Water project (CeNAWP), Smith Plan for transfer from Canada to USA. For Mexico city water supply, transfer of ground waters from the Lerma basin was completed in 1958. Water Plan for the North Western Region (PLHINO) conceived a set of inter basin transfers within the Noroeste region. Mahaveli-Ganga Project of Srilanka includes several inter- basin transfer links. IBTW projects have also been planned and implemented in China and former USSR. A notable scheme executed in the USSR is the Irtysh Karganda in the central Kazakhistan. Link canal is about 450 km long with a maximum capacity of 75 cumecs. Lift involved is 14 to 22 m. There is another plan to transfer 90,000 M cu m on the north flowing river to the area in south. Some projects include partial redistribution of water resources of northern rivers and lakes of European part to Caspian sea basin involving 2 M.Ha.m.
Lingua canal was completed in China in 214 BC and the Grand canal was completed in 605 AD. Recently completed projects in China include Biliuha-Dalian IBTW project, trans- basin transfer of Luhana river to Tiajian and Tengshan, IBTW project of Guanglong province and Inter basin diversions in Fujian province. Diversion of Quiantang river water, diversion of Yellow river surpluses and South to North transfer projects with the West route, Middle route and East route are other proposed projects. China has already started the execution of its massive water transfer projects. 59 schemes of inter-basin water transfers have been completed in various countries mainly in Canada, USA, Iraq, Czechoslovakia and these involve a transfer of upto 246 Km3 annually in Canada, 37 Km3 per year in the USA and 45 Km3 per year in Iraq and 6 Km3 per year in Czechoslovakia. In addition, about 19 schemes for future inter-basin transfers have been proposed mainly in Canada, USA, China, Russia and Germany. The proposals in USA involve an annual transfer of 348 Km3 while those in Russia involve 37 Km3 and those in China involve 14 Km3. Thus, inter-basin and intra-basin transfer of water projects (ILR) is not new, either in India or in other countries. Given the techniques and expertise in India for detailed planning and implementation base, there is every reason to believe that an overall sustainable regime can be built around ILR projects; an unprecedented venture amongst developing countries, marrying development and ecological management through scientifically – planned strategies, in tune with the decision of Hon’ble Supreme Court of India.
8. Special Socio-Economic Impacts of ILR Projects
Over years, the awareness about such concerns and the methods for dealing with the adverse impacts caused by such concerns have changed considerably and an acceptable methodology of evaluating and meeting such concern through legal policy related and management measures has evolved more as less in a satisfactory manner. In this context, views have been expressed that ILR may cause socio-economic and environmental impacts much different from those caused by in-basin developments. These differences could be both due to the large size of the project and due to the different nature of the project which involves long distance water transfers through large and long canals. For example, large storages and long links could involve a much larger resettlement problem than nation is used to. The link canals may involve large scale interruption of natural drainage and also a large barrier between neighboring communities. These are problems created by size. Very nature of inter-basin transfers could also lead to inadvertent introduction of flora and fauna alien to the recipient basin from the donor basin. This introduced flora and fauna could theoretically grow to a proportion, where it becomes a menace to the ecology of the recipient area and can disturb the ecological balances.
In India, the planners are familiar with the social and environmental concerns caused by small, medium, major, mega and large intra-basin water transfer projects. Social and environmental concerns associated with these inter-basin transfers would mainly on account of the largeness of the totality of the measures in the region in which the system of links passes. Each individual storage dam such as the Ichampally, the Polavaram, the Manibhadra/ Tikarpara etc involved in the peninsular links would not be much different in its storage or in its displacement from the large reservoirs like Gandhisagar, Sardar Sarovar, Srisailam, Nagarjunasagar etc which are existing. Similarly, we already have experienced about large canals exceeding discharge capacities of 1000 m3 /sec and the link canals would be not of much larger magnitude through these would be of much larger links. The issue of inadvertent introduction of alien flora and fauna is important since it could cause a very serious ecological problem. While this needs a detailed study, preliminary verbal enquiries have not brought out any such possibilities.
The existing inter-basin transfers in India do not seem to have experienced any such problem. Perhaps the ecology of the various regions of India are not dissimilar. Himalayan regions with their ‘tundras’ and ‘tigas’ could perhaps have a markedly different ecology and transfer of waters of these regions to the peninsula may require a more detail study of these aspects.
The author has authored/edited/compiled 5 reputed publications, published by M/s Tata Mc-Graw Hill, Oxford & IBH and Concept Publishers. Each of these 5 publications contain over 30 articles giving intricate details and numerous case studies from most reputed experts in Indian context.
9. Dams and eEnvironment- Supreme Court judgment, 2000
Following excerpts of Hon’ble Supreme Court in their judgment delivered on 18th October, 2000 for Narmada project, in writ petition of Narmada Bachhao Andolan Vs. Government of India and others are eye opening. (C.A. No. 6014/1994 W.P.(C) Nos. 345/94 with 104/1997, S.L.P. (C) No. 3608/1985 & T.C. (C) No. 35 of 19995 ).
“That in the present case, they were not concerned with the polluting industry, but a large dam. The dam is neither a nuclear establishment nor a polluting industry. The construction of a dam undoubtedly would result in the change of environment but it will not be correct to presume that the construction of a large dam like Sardar- Sarovar will result in ecological disaster. ‘India has an experience over 40 years in the construction of dams. The experience does not show that the construction of a large dam is not cost effective or leads to ecological or environmental degradation. On the contrary, there has been ecological up-gradation with the construction of large dam. What is the impact on environment with the construction of a dam is well known in India and therefore, the ‘precautionary principle’ and the ‘polluter pays principle’ will have no application in the present case. So far, a number of such river valley projects have been undertaken in all parts of India. The petitioner has not been able to point out a single instance where the construction of a dam has, on the whole, had an adverse environmental impact. On the contrary, the environment has improved.
That being so, there is no reason to suspect, with all the experience gained so far, that the position here will be any different and there will not be over-all improvement and prosperity. It should not be forgotten that poverty is regarded as one of the causes of degradation of environment. With improved irrigation system, the people will prosper. The construction of Bhakra Dam is a shining example for all to see, how the backward area of erstwhile undivided Punjab has now become the granary of India with improved environment than what was before the completion of Bhakra Nangal Project. We are not convinced that the construction of dam will result in there being an adverse ecological impact. There is no reason to conclude that the Environmental Sub-group is not functioning effectively. The Group, which is headed by the Secretary, Ministry of Environment and Forests is a high powered body, which can- not be belittled merely on the basis of conjectures or surmises.”
Hon’ble Supreme Court was satisfied that substantial compliance of stipulated environmental safeguards was undertaken in SSD Project. Surprisingly, the Supreme Court noted that the Narmada Bacchao Andolan (NBA) had not even allowed surveys for demarcation for R&R of the PAFs and that the NBA’s efforts to stall SSDP through FMG had failed. The NBA’s plea that environmental clearance for Sardar Sarovar Dam Project had lapsed; was not agreed to by the Supreme Court. It was ruled that Narmada Bachhao Andolan (NBA) could not give a single example of the whole adverse environmental impacts of even a single dam in India.
10. Conflict management- Participation of media & NGOs
Environment is either Science or Engineering. Novelist(s), celebrities, self-acclaimed ecological experts and social activists need to be restrained from creating fantasies blocking projects of such national importance. Without ensuring adequate qualitative water and power availability, India is bound to become a dooming civilization rather than becoming an economic superpower. Availability of water is bound to improve sanitation, safe hygienic practices and better health standards. Accelerated water storage development, water conservation through reuse, wastewater recycling, aquifer recharging and rainwater harvesting as well as positive partnership of community are important aspects for sustainable infrastructure development.
Media plays most important role in shaping the thoughts of the people. It is essential that electronic and print media should set its focus right to set the agenda and making the society conscious through balanced scientific public awareness. Inter-linking of rivers (IBTW) is highly essential. We should soon overcome all the obstacles in this national task. Professional societies and voluntary organisations can play very vital role in water resources management with due care of environmental management. Modalities of involvement and limitations of NGOs, educational, professional and voluntary organisations must be worked out to streamline their participation in ILR projects & water resources management.
11. Concluding remarks
Supreme Court in their judgment in PIL filed by NBA expressed its deep concern that against the utilizable storage 690 cu. km. of surface water resources out of 1869 cu. km.; so far storage capacity of all dams in India is only 174 cu. km., which is incidentally less than the capacity of Kariba Dam in Zambia/Zimbabwe with capacity of 180.6 cu. km. and only 12 cu. km. more than the Aswan High Dam of Egypt.
Supreme Court had also observed in 2000 judgment that the Public Interest Litigation (PIL) was ballooning and can’t be allowed to burst. The lords in their judgment stated that PILs cannot be allowed to degenerate into “Publicity Interest Litigation” nor “Private Inquisitiveness Litigation”. Supreme Court very clearly observed that with channelization of development, ecology & environment gets enhanced and that biggest dam to smallest structures are water harvesting structures. Supreme Court ruled that “Dam is neither nuclear establishment nor an industry. Since long, India has derived benefits of river valley projects. High dam decision can’t be faulted. Large dams upgrade ecology”.
India is familiar with the social and environmental concerns caused by inter-basin projects like BSL, IGNP, Parmbikular- Aliyar projects as well as small, medium and large in-basin projects. Acceptable methodology of evaluating and meeting such concerns through legal policy, related guidelines and management measures has already been evolved.
There are large inequities in the availability and demand scenario amongst the various basins. Broad objectives of the inter-basin transfers are equitable distribution of available water resources within a region or the nation, increased economic efficiency, self-sufficiency in basic water related outputs such as food and hydro-energy and providing livelihood and employment opportunities in situ; so that large scale migration of population (seasonal or permanent, short distance or long distance, in water distress situations) is checked.
The controversy of the large versus small dams is irrelevant. Basic fact remains that the ILR projects are site and requirement specific depending upon the hydrological, geological, topographical and regional conditions. It is highly essential that needed environmental safeguards are properly implemented in a coordinated manner by various agencies. Water requirements of the country would continue to grow due to the abrupt population growth, industrialization, urbanization and improvement in the quality of life. Social tensions, political instability and street fights are already being experienced in India, on account of fast deteriorating situation of availability of water in adequate quantity and of acceptable quality.
The author sincerely hopes that this overview presentation would help the policy planners, administrators, professionals, media, NGOs and public at large to understand spectrum of concerns and conflicts of inter-basin transfer of water to responsibly channelize their energy and strengthen their fortes for positive participation in this giant project of prime national importance. It is desirable that self-acclaimed environmental experts, having neither professional background nor acumen in highly complicated dose response functions of complex environmental issues; adopt positive approach in the interest of nation, rather than making large scale hurdles in execution of almost each river valley project on one or the other shifting ground.
1. Goel R.S.(Editor), 1993, ‘ Environmental Impacts of Water Resources Development’, M/S Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company, New Delhi, June 1993, Reprinted in 1995.
2. Goel R. S.(Editor), 2000, ‘Environment Impacts Assessment of Water Resources Projects – Concerns, Policy Issues, Perceptions and Scientific Analysis’ M/S Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., ISBN-81-204-1422-5, New Delhi.
3. Goel R. S.(Editor), 2000, “Environmental Management in Hydropower and River Valley Projects – Techniques of Management, Policy Issues, Case Studies and Application of Scientific Tools’, ISBN-81-204-1423-3, M/S Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi
4. Goel R.S., “The Unquiet Narmada - The Antagonism Against River Valley Projects Is Unjustified”, Invited Article Published in The Economic Times, New Delhi, Editorial Page, 31st December 2000.
5. Goel R.S., “ River Valley Projects, Dams are Beneficial”, Invited Article Published in The Times of India, , 11th May 2001, New Delhi.
6. Goel R. S. and Srivastava R.N.(Editors), 2000, “Hydropower and River Valley Development- Environment Management, Case Studies and Policy Issues”, M/S Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi.
7. Goel R.S., 2003, Keynote Address, ‘India’s Hydropower Vision to 2030 – Environmental Issues’ National Seminar on India’s Energy Vision -2030 – Issues, Constraints and the way Ahead, IJPRVD, 19-21, Dec, 2003, Kolkata.
8. India Water Partnership, 2000, “India Water Vision 2025- Report of Vision Development Consultation”, New Delhi.
9. Indian Water Resources Society, 1999 “Theme Paper on Water Vision-2050”, New Delhi.
10. Ministry of Water Resources, 1999, Report of the National Commission for Integrated Water Resources Development, New Delhi.
11. Ministry of Water Resources, 2001, Report of the Working Group on Water Related Ecological Matters for X Five Year Plan, New Delhi.
12. Ministry of Water Resources, 2003, Vision for Integrated Water Resources Development and Management, New Delhi.
13. Prasad Kamta and Goel R.S.(Editors), 2000, Environmental Management in Hydro Electric Projects’, ISBN-81-7022-870-0, M/S Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi.
14. Planning Commission, 1996, “Report of Working Group on Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Sector for IX Five Year Plan”, New Delhi.
15. Supreme Court Judgment, 2000, Narmada Bahao Andolan Vs. Union of India, AIR, SCC, 2000.
16. Supreme Court Judgment, Writ Petition 512/2002 Dated 27th February 2012, AIR, SCC, 2012.
17. Water Management Forum, 2002, ‘Theme Paper on Inter-Basin Transfers of Water – Challenges and Opportunities’, New Delhi.
Er. Radhey Shyam Goel
National Convener, Coordination Committee,
Water & Hydro-power Related National Professional Societies,
National Vice President, Association of Hydrologists of India,
A-11 Swati Apartments, 12 I.P.Extension, Delhi 110092
(Radhey Shyam Goel is triple Masters all with Ist class Honours in Water Resources Development (Roorkee), Hydrology (Ireland) and PG Diploma (Hydropower) besides PG diploma in Public Administration (IIPA), M. Phil in Social Sciences (Uni. of Punjab) and Diploma in Environmental Law (Indian Institute of Law). He has been bestowed with Green Education & Employment Award, Hindustan Door Oliver Prize, National Citizens’ Corps International Award & Hindi Sewa Samman. Er. Goel is National Convener of Indian Coordination Committee of Water & Hydro-power Related National Professional Societies National Vice President, Association of Hydrologists of India. He has edited/authored 17 prestigious books, authored over 250 technical articles, contributed invited 12 Articles for editorial pages of leading National Newspapers, moderated/ appeared in 12 TV program, delivered 25 AIR Talks. He has delivered 21 Memorial Lectures and Inaugural/Key-note Addresses in International & National Conferences. He had been the youngest National Council Member (1993-1997) of Institution of Engineers (India), National Vice President of IWRS (6years), National Vice President of ISRMTT(4 years) and Convener of Program (4years) of Water Management Forum, Member of Expert Appraisal Committee (5 Years) of Ministry of Environment & Forests for River Valley & Hydropower Projects and Member of Apex Scientific Committee (4 years) of G. B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment & Development.)