The Central Pollution Control Board, and State Pollution Control Boards composition, terms and conditions of service of members are defined in Sections 3-12 of water (prevention and control of pollution) act, 1974.
The Board advises the government on any matter concerning the prevention and control of water pollution. It coordinates the activities and provides technical assistance and guidance. This policy sets the standards and penalties for non-compliance for polluting bodies.
The Government has power to restrict any unit, and to take samples of effluents and get them analysed in Central or State laboratories. Whoever fails to comply with any provision of this Act is punishable with imprisonment, fine or with both.
The Central Board may perform all or any of the following functions, namely,-
- advise the Central Government on any matter concerning the prevention and control of water pollution;
- co-ordinate the activities of the State Boards and resolve disputes among them;
- provide technical assistance and guidance to the State Boards, carry out and sponsor investigations and research relating to problems of water pollution and prevention, control or abatement of water pollution;
- plan and organise the training of persons engaged or to be engaged in programmes for the prevention, control or abatement of water pollution on such terms and conditions as the Central Board may specify;
- organise through mass media a comprehensive programme regarding the prevention and control of water pollution;
- collect, compile and publish technical and statistical data relating to water pollution and the measures devised for its effective prevention and control and prepare manuals, codes or guides relating to treatment and disposal of sewage and trade effluents and disseminate information connected therewith;
- lay down, modify or annul, in consultation with the State Government concerned, the standards for a stream or well;
- plan and execute a nation-wide programme for the prevention, control or abatement of water pollution;
- perform such other functions as may be prescribed.