The National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) is a policy document prepared by the Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change. It has been prepared keeping in mind that India's economic need to tap its natural resources needs to be tempered with the need to maintain ecological balance.
The NAPCC is guided by the principles of -
It was found necessary to establish eight national missions which not only espouse to these principles but will form the core of the overall national mission. The technical document, which forms part of the NAPCC, discusses the way forward for each of these missions.
These missions are:
1.The National Solar Mission aims to increase share of solar energy in India's energy mix. This is to be done by not only increasing R & D efforts but also by promoting decentralised distribution of energy by creating cheaper and more convenient solar systems. Over the 11th and 12th plan period it aima to deliver atleast 80% coverage for all low temperature and 60% coverage for medium temperature applications of solar energy in urban areas. There is an emphasis on manufacturing solar panels at the local level. In the long term the aim of the mission would be to tie up local research with international efforts.
2.The National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency builds on the 2001 Energy Conservation Act. This mission will look at ways to create a market based mechanism to enhance cost effectiveness of improvements on energy efficiency. This would also mean finding ways to shift to energy efficient products; further, the creation of mechanisms that promote demand side management will also be looked into under this mission. Switching to cleaner fuels, commercially viable technology transfers, capacity building needs etc will be the way forward for this mission.
3.The National Mission on Sustainable Habitat has a manifold agenda. It looks at energy efficiency within buildings and also at waste disposal from these buildings. Another important aspect of this mission is to better the public transport system. In addition, it will promote energy efficiency in the residential and commercial sectors and also work towards management of solid waste through recycling and improvement of the urban transport system
4.The National Mission on Water will be mounted to ensure better integrated water resource management. This would lead to water conservation, less wastage of water, equitable distribution of water. The mission will also come out with a framework to improve water efficiency by 20%, through regulatory and pricing mechanisms. It sees the issue of ground water management and use as important. It also sees the need to study the management of surface water as it not only indicates the status of the environment but also has huge economic impacts. Improving water storage capacities and protecting wetlands form an important aspect that will be looked into by this mission.
5.The National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem has been created, to protect the Himalayan ecosystem. The mandate of this mission is to evolve measures to sustain and safeguard the Himalayan glaciers and mountain eco-systems.
6.The National Mission for a Green India has the mandate of reviving degraded forest land. It will focus on increasing forest cover and density and conserving biodiversity. The way forward would entail reducing fragmentation of forests, enhancing private public partnerships for plantations, improving schemes based on joint forestry management etc.
7.The National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture will devise strategies to make Indian agriculture less susceptible to climate change. It would identify and develop new crop varieties; more importantly it would use traditional and modern agricultural techniques to achieve its stated mission goal. This mission sees dry land agriculture, risk management, access to information and use of biotechnology as areas of intervention.
8.The National Mission for Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change will identify challenges and requisite responses to climate change. This will be done through open international collaboration and would ensure sufficient funding for this research. This mission would also be entrusted with the dissemination of new knowledge created. It will focus on the following themes:
As per the NAPCC, each mission comes under a ministry and these missions will have an institutional set up. The missions will have to determine objectives spanning the 11th and 12th plan periods.
The NAPCC also looks at other initiatives underway to address climate change these include different energy generating technologies like super critical technologies which give higher efficiencies than normal coal burning thermal power plants, use of natural gas etc. The need for technology transfer and capacity building forms part of the other initiatives mentioned. There is also mention about international cooperation under the aegis of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC).
The challenges faced by the various national missions are expanded on in the respective documents. These also detail the strategies chosen to meet these challenges, and set goals for themselves. A brief explanation of these follows.
1. The Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission
Governing ministry: Ministry for New and Renewable Energy
Goals: With the structure provided by the mission it is hoped that by the end of the third phase, 2022, India should have installed 20,000 MW of solar power.
2. National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency.
Governing ministry: Ministry of Power.
Challenges: Development with energy efficiency as a key criterion
Goals: Energy, Efficiency, Equity and Environment
3. National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture
Governing ministry: Ministry of Agriculture
Challenges: Reduced yields, impacts on acreage and land holding utilisation, direct damages to crop and infrastructure
4. National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan ecosystem
Governing ministry: Ministry for Science and Technology
Goals: establishing of a modern centre of glaciology, standardisation of data collection to ensure interoperability and mapping of natural resources in the area, identification and training of 100 experts and specialists in the area relevant to sustaining the Himalayan ecosystem
National Mission for a Green India
Governing ministry: Ministry of environment and Forests
Challenges: Impacts of climate change and climate change variability
National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change
Governing ministry : Ministry of Science and Technology
Challenges: need for a strong strategic knowledge system on climate change
The efforts undertaken here would feed into the Indian National Network for Climate Change Assessment (INCCA) which is a stock taking exercise conducted every two years as part of the national obligations under UNFCCC.
Goals: Creation of a data generation and sharing system by
National Mission on Sustainable Habitat
Governing ministry: Ministry of Urban Development
To make urban areas more climate friendly and less susceptible to climate change Need for a multi-pronged approach to not only mitigate climate change but also to adapt to it
These are grouped as follows:
National Water Mission
Governing ministry: Ministry of Water Resources
It has been assessed that for the mission there would be need of Rs 60,445 crores for the 12th Plan.
Though some of these documents are drafts they all indicate India's desire to not only work towards mitigating climate change but also prepare its economy, resources and people to adapt to climate change.
Download the documents below: