This report of a study of different types of sanitation systems in India. The sanitation systems evaluated, range from the simple septic tank to the more complex multiple stage filtration and DEWATS
The sanitation systems studied are spread across the country. The study goes to Pratapnagar in Bihar to evaluate the success of the septic tank to Asalthpur in Uttar Pradesh to study the Ecosan (UDDT) toilet. Other locations in India include Maharashtra, Gujarat, Kerala.
The parameters chosen for evaluating the various sanitation systems included water quality, indicators for social acceptance, hygiene indicators. For the socio-cultural and socio-economic aspects, questionnaires were used.
The evaluation found that the septic tank under study was a failure not only because of its malfunctioning but also because of the health hazards faced by the community during the cleaning of the tank.
The Ecosan toilet system is being used by a community. The study found it to be a partial success even though only 80 of the targeted 200 members of the community use it. This is because water is saved and 500 Kg of organic fertiliser is generated half yearly. However a majority of the respondents experienced problems in its use.
The bio-gas facility that was studied was assessed to be a success because the technology was implemented by households on their own and with their own money. This system has been accepted and the gas generated is used by the houses. Same was the case with the Solid Immobilised Biofilter (SIBF), Multiple Stage Filtration and DEWATS.
From their research the authors make a list of recommendations which include - ECOSAN community toilets should be built closer to the users, first time users of toilets should be educated on hygiene and proper use of toilets, and operation and maintenance need to be enhanced for community acceptance of these toilets.
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