Please cite this article as "Anjaneyulu, L.; Kumar, E. A.; Sankannavar, R.; Rao, K. K. Defluoridation of Drinking Water and Rainwater Harvesting Using a Solar Still. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2012, 51, 8040 − 8048".
When people drink water having a fluoride (F−) concentration >1−1.5 mg/L for a long period of time, various ailments that are collectively referred to as fluorosis occur. Based on the design of Thomas (http://www.planetkerala.org), an inclined basin-type solar still containing sand and water has been used at Bangalore for defluoridation. For water samples having a fluoride concentration in the range 5−20 mg/L, the fluoride concentration in the distillate was usually <1.5 mg/L. During the periods October 2006−May 2007 and October 2007−May 2008, the volume of distillate showed a significant diurnal variation, ranging from 0.3 to 4.0 L/m2·day. Based on the figures for 2006, the cost of the still was about Rs. 850 (US$16) for collector areas in the range 0.50−0.57 m2. The occurrence of F− in the distillate merits further investigation. Overall, the still effectively removes F−, but a large area of the collector, in the range 2.5−25 m2, is needed to produce about 10 L of distilled water for cooking and drinking. Rainwater falling on the upper surface of the still was collected, and its fluoride concentration was found to be below the desirable limit of 1 mg/L. Hence it can also be used for cooking and drinking.