This paper published in the Present Environment and Sustainable Development critically analyses the impacts and vulnerability of Indian economy to climate change and analyses India’s efforts in addressing and reducing the vulnerability of its natural and socioeconomic systems to climate change and enhancing the adaptive capacity of the same under uncertainty.
There is considerable disagreement on the extent of the changes in the variables of climate. However, it has been predicted that these changes will lead to submergence of coastal areas, increased severe occurrence of floods and droughts and harm productivity in agriculture, fishery, forestry, human, lead to loss of lives and livelihood, productivity, employment opportunities, with high opportunity cost of adaptations and mitigations in India.
This paper attempts to gather historical evidence for climate change in India since the last glacial period till recent times. It also attempts to analyse the impact of climate change on the Indian economy and critically assess the climate policy India proposes to follow in response to climate change.
The first section of the paper discusses the extent of impacts and vulnerability of Indian economy to the climate change. Section 2 provides the background to the climate policy of India. Section 3 critically analyses the climate policy of India and the last section ends with a critical assessment of climate policy of India.
The paper concludes that there are numerous serious evidences of climate change that have brought about changes in the civilisations, culture and the economy in India. In the absence of adaptation, mitigation strategies and development process, climate change may alter the distribution and quality of India's natural resources and adversely affect the livelihood of its people.
The paper is divided into the following sections:
1. The Impacts and Vulnerability of the Indian Economy to Climate Change
- Temperature, Precipitation and Occurrence of Extreme Events
- Water resources
- Agriculture and Food Security
- Coastal areas
- Human Health (Spread of Malaria)
2. The Background to the Climate Policy of India
3. Climate Policy of India
- Solar Power
- Enhanced Energy Efficiency
- Sustainable Habitat
- Water Resources
- Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem
- Green India
- Sustainable Agriculture
- Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change
- Other Policy Issues - International Cooperation on Climate Change
4. Critical Assessment of Climate Policy of India
A copy of the paper can be accessed from this link